3 properties of fibers

Admin March 29, Fiber Leave a comment 2, Views. The discussed below. A spinner or buyer is very much concerned about the average length of fiber, which is also called staple length, referred to as the evenness of a staple or effective length. The fibers staple length more than mm is long staple. Higher the staple length betters the fiber quality. Due to following reasons fiber length is very important.

Yarn strength : The strength of yarn is partly governed by the length of fiber. Longer the fiber finer the yarn, longer the fiber stronger the yarn and longer the fiber less the twist required. Appearance : Appearance of a yarn is also dependent on the length of fiber.

3 properties of fibers

Too short fiber will produce a hairy yarn whereas long fiber will produce a smooth surfaced yarn. Moreover for the same count of yarn production, short fiber produces thicker yarn than long fiber. Fiber Fineness : Fiber fineness is very important in determining the quality and commercial value of fibers. A short fine fiber is more valuable than a coarse long fiber generally fine fibers are long staple. For textile raw material in general, the transverse fiber dimension are of the utmost technical importance, not only in one but in many contexts.

Some important reasons of importance of fiber fineness is discussed below. Fiber fineness is thus an important factor in determining the stiffness of a fabric i. Shown are in following table and its draping quality. A summary of the statement is. Torsional rigidity : As fineness varies and other things are equal resistant too, varies. Hence fineness plays an important part in determining the ease with which fibers can be twisted together during van formation.

Types Of Fibers With Pictures & Their Properties

It can influence with which fibers can be twisted together during yarn formation. It can be shown that the torque generated in a yarn of given count by a given amount of twist increases as the linear density of the fiber increases. Reflection of light : The finer the fibers in a fabric the greater the number of individual reflecting surfaces per unit area of the fabric.

Hence, fabric produced from finer fiber will be more lusterous than the fabric produced from coarser fibers. Fiber fineness thus affects the character of the luster of the fabric. This property of material is important in dyeing printing finishing treatment and suitability of breathable fabric wearing property.

Yarn uniformity : The uniformity of a yarn is largely determined by the average number of fibers in its X-section For a given yarn count. Therefore, the finer the fibers the more uniform the yarn Uniformity of yarn influences the yarn strength, extensibility, luster, fewer end breakage in different stages of processing.

Yarn count : There should be a minimum number of fibers in a yarn cross section e. Yarn strength : For a particular count of yarn produced from coarse fiber shall have less strength than the fine fibers yarn.Fibres used to make fabric may be natural or synthetic. Fibres that are obtained from plants or animals are called natural fibres. Examples are cotton, jute, wooland silk.

Fibres that are made by man from chemical substances are called synthetic fibres. Examples are nylon, rayon, polyester, and acrylic. Let us learn more about plant fibres.

Textile Fibers Burning Test

Cotton, jute, coir, silk cotton, hemp, and flax are examples of plant fibres. Denim, used to make jeans, is made from cotton. The cotton plant is a shrub. It grows well in black soil and warm climate. It needs moderate rainfall. Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. A variety of textile products are made from cotton. Jute is a fibre obtained from the bark of the jute plant. It can be grown in different soil types, ranging from clayey to sandy soil. It grows best in loamy soil mixture of sand, silt, and claysandy soil, and clayey soil.

It grows well in regions where it rains a lot.

Bangladesh, India, China, Nepal, and Thailand are the main producers of jute. Coir: Coir is the fibre obtained from the outer covering or the husk of the coconut. Usually coconuts are left in water for a few months. The husk is then separated from the nut and beaten with wooden mallets to get the fibre.

Different Types Of Natural Fibres And Their Uses

The fibre thus obtained is spun and dyed and is ready for weaving. Coir is used to make several household products like rope and floor covering and also as a stuffing in mattresses and pillows.Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion.

3 properties of fibers

He is working as a consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Properties of Fiber Properties of Textile Fiber. Properties of Textile Fiber:. Before learning about properties of fiber, you should know about what is textile fiber? We can define fiber as; Any substance, natural or manufactured, with a high length to width ratio and with suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric; the smallest component, hair like in nature, that can be separated from a fabric.

I have also published a complete post on textile fiber. You can see this: What is Textile Fiber? Types of Textile Fiber. Without above that properties, fiber has also. Sharing Knowledge: Students, teachers and professionals can publish your article here. It is a platform to express your knowledge throughout the world. For details: Submit Article. Founder and Editor: Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant, entrepreneur, blogger and researcher on online business promotion.

Previous Newer Post. Next Older Post.Fiber or fibre from Latin: fibra [1] is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts.

Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, and include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. Man-made or chemical fibers are fibers whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Semi-synthetic fibers are made from raw materials with naturally long-chain polymer structure and are only modified and partially degraded by chemical processes, in contrast to completely synthetic fibers such as nylon polyamide or dacron polyesterwhich the chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization chain-building reactions.

The earliest semi-synthetic fiber is the cellulose regenerated fiber, rayon. Cellulose fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, regenerated from natural cellulose.

The cellulose comes from various sources: rayon from tree wood fiber, bamboo fiber from bamboo, seacell from seaweedetc. In the production of these fibers, the cellulose is reduced to a fairly pure form as a viscous mass and formed into fibers by extrusion through spinnerets. Therefore, the manufacturing process leaves few characteristics distinctive of the natural source material in the finished products. Historically, cellulose diacetate and -triacetate were classified under the term rayon, but are now considered distinct materials.

Synthetic come entirely from synthetic materials such as petrochemicalsunlike those man-made fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein. Fiber classification in reinforced plastics falls into two classes: i short fibers, also known as discontinuous fibers, with a general aspect ratio defined as the ratio of fiber length to diameter between 20 and 60, and ii long fibers, also known as continuous fibers, the general aspect ratio is between and Metallic fibers can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones, such as nickel, aluminum or iron.

See also Stainless steel fibers. Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PANbut the end product is almost pure carbon. The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide, including mostly other elements like oxygen, titanium, or aluminium, but with mechanical properties very similar to those of carbon fibers.

Fiberglassmade from specific glass, and optical fibermade from purified natural quartzare also man-made fibers that come from natural raw materials, silica fibermade from sodium silicate water glass and basalt fiber made from melted basalt.

Mineral fibers can be particularly strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects, asbestos is a common one. Microfibers in textiles refer to sub-denier fiber such as polyester drawn to 0. Denier and Dtex are two measurements of fiber yield based on weight and length. If the fiber density is known, you also have a fiber diameter, otherwise it is simpler to measure diameters in micrometers.

Microfibers in technical fibers refer to ultra fine fibers glass or meltblown thermoplastics often used in filtration. Newer fiber designs include extruding fiber that splits into multiple finer fibers. Most synthetic fibers are round in cross-section, but special designs can be hollow, oval, star-shaped or trilobal. The latter design provides more optically reflective properties.

Synthetic textile fibers are often crimped to provide bulk in a woven, non woven or knitted structure. Fiber surfaces can also be dull or bright. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fiber more transparent.

3 properties of fibers

Natural cellulosesuch as cotton or bleached kraftshow smaller fibrils jutting out and away from the main fiber structure. Fibers can be divided into natural and man-made synthetic substance, their properties can affect their performance in many applications.

Nowadays, man-made fiber materials are replacing other conventional materials like glass and wood in a number of applications.

Fiber Properties

Various fibers are available to select for manufacturing. Here are typical properties of the sample natural fibers as compared to the properties of man-made fibers.A and T, Pantnagar. Carbon fiber is composed of carbon atoms bonded together to form a long chain.

The fibers are extremely stiff, strong, and light, and are used in many processes to create excellent building materials. Carbon fiber material comes in a variety of "raw" building-blocks, including yarns, uni-directional, weaves, braids, and several others, which are in turn used to create composite parts. The properties of a carbon fiber part are close to that of steel and the weight is close to that of plastic.

Thus the strength to weight ratio as well as stiffness to weight ratio of a carbon fiber part is much higher than either steel or plastic. Carbon fiber is extremely strong. It is typical in engineering to measure the benefit of a material in terms of strength to weight ratio and stiffness to weight ratio, particularly in structural design, where added weight may translate into increased lifecycle costs or unsatisfactory performance.

Bhatt P, Goe A. India;14 1. Carbon fibers have several advantages including high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion.

These properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. Based on modulus, strength, and final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers can be classified into the following categories:. The raw material used to make carbon fiber is called the precursor.


All of these materials are organic polymers, characterized by long strings of molecules bound together by carbon atoms. The exact composition of each precursor varies from one company to another and is generally considered a trade secret.

During the manufacturing process, a variety of gases and liquids are used. Some of these materials are designed to react with the fiber to achieve a specific effect. Other materials are designed not to react or to prevent certain reactions with the fiber. As with the precursors, the exact compositions of many of these process materials are considered trade secrets. Before the fibers are carbonized, they need to be chemically altered to convert their linear atomic bonding to a more thermally stable ladder bonding.

This causes the fibers to pick up oxygen molecules from the air and rearrange their atomic bonding pattern. The stabilizing chemical reactions are complex and involve several steps, some of which occur simultaneously.

They also generate their own heat, which must be controlled to avoid overheating the fibers. Commercially, the stabilization process uses a variety of equipment and techniques. In some processes, the fibers are drawn through a series of heated chambers.

In others, the fibers pass over hot rollers and through beds of loose materials held in suspension by a flow of hot air.All textiles are made up of fibers. Yellow River, Yangtze River, south, northwest, northeast are five major cotton-producing regions of China. Immature fibers exhibit thin wall structures and a large lumen ,whereas mature fibers have thick walls and a small lumen that may not be continuous ,because the wall close the lumen in some sections.

The most outer layer of the cotton fibre is the cuticle covered with waxes and pectins and this surrounds a primary wall, built of cellulose, pectins and proteinic material. Bast and leaf fibers are plant fibre collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. Flax is a bast fiber—a woody fiber obtained from the phloem of plants.

It derives from the stalk or stem of Linum suitatssimum.

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The use of linen in Egypt between and B. Flax fiber is not so fine as cotton, is longer than cotton. While, the color of cotton fibers vary from almost pure white to a dirty gray.

Flax is a strong fiber. Fabrics of flax are durable and easy to maintain because of the fiber strength. Linen fabrics are prone to crease and wrinkle badly.

They are somewhat stiff and posses little resiliency. It is these characteristics, it can be made into sacks and hemp rope, etc. Hemp is traditionally known as a fiber plant and most historical cultivation of the plant in the United States from the 17th to midth centuries was with fiber use in mind.

Wool fibres are roughly oval in cross-section and grow in a more or less wary form with a certain amount of twist. The finer the wool, the more the crimp. Keratin is a complex protein and is amphoteric in nature. In order to prevent silk yarn from breaking up in weaving process, the silk filaments are usually produced in the form of yarn by combining reeled strands from several cocoons together by giving a certain twist to hold them and the gum existing on silk helps to hold the strands together.

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The degree of polymerization of silk fibroin is uncertain, with DP of to having been measured in different solvents. Silk Fibre Structure. Synthetic fibers are created by extruding fiber forming materials through spinnerets into air and water, forming a thread. What is a Fiber? General Properties of Fibers High length to diameter ration, fineness and flexibility A certain level of strength Extensibility and elasticity Resistance to chemicals, heat and sunlight Ability to be colored Cotton Cotton is the most common natural fibers in our daily life.

Cotton fiber structure Immature fibers exhibit thin wall structures and a large lumen ,whereas mature fibers have thick walls and a small lumen that may not be continuous ,because the wall close the lumen in some sections. Cotton fiber structure properties Cotton fibers are thin long and soft, with a high moisture regain. Cotton fiber is a moisture and strong porous material. The internal molecular arrangement is not regular, with a large number of hydrophilic molecular structure inside.

As the warm cotton fiber is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, thermal conductivity is very low, because of its porous nature of cotton fibers, the advantages of high flexibility, can accumulate large amounts of air between the fibers, the air is hot and electric the bad conductor, so cotton fiber products have good moisture retention, use cotton products make people feel warm.R7 1000m Class: Class 1, Handicap 5:30PM Selections 8. I Am Twisted (4) odds 1. Christmas Cheer (13) odds 2.

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3 properties of fibers

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